Aquaculture and fish farming

Aquacultureand fish farming are both raising aquatic organisms for breeding and rearing. It is mostly practiced for commercial purposes for both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Indeed, it is performed under controlled conditions to create an ideal environment for survival and growth of aquatic animals.

Fish farming is the main form of aquaculture available. This is the method to raise fish artificially for reproduction and transportation. Usually, large tanks are used to raise fish on a commercial basis.

Difference between aquaculture and fish farming

AQUACULTURE PISCICULTURE
The production of all types of aquatic organisms in water areas. Production of freshwater or saltwater fish only
Small amount of special food from outside. We provide fish food from outside
Important production For the majority of the food production

What is aquaculture ?

Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish and even plants. This term refers to the cultivation of marine and freshwater species and can range from land-based to deep-sea production.

Present for several millennia, aquaculture has been improving with time. Today, the ponds are located in ponds, enclosures. Fish swim freely in large net structures in the protected coastal areas. This means they have continuous access to clean water and exercise, so the fish are healthy, lean and firm.

Recirculation ponds will also be discussed in this article.

What is aquaculture and why is it important?

Because 70% of the planet’s surface is covered by water, humans have understood its importance as a resource. This is why aquaculture is the most exploited in terms of water use as a resource. This is especially true in food production as opposed to land use.

It fulfills various purposes, including:

  • food production
  • Restoring populations that are threatened and endangered,
  • population enhancement of wild stocks
  • aquarium construction
  • fish farming
  • Home rehabilitation.

Examples of aquaculture

Mariculture is the branch of aquaculture that cultivates marine organisms. It is practiced either :

  • at sea
  • in a closed part of the ocean
  • in basins or ponds filled with sea water.

Organisms grown in salt water are:

  • fish like flounder and whiting
  • Seafood (such as shrimp and oysters)
  • marine plants (such as kelp and seaweed)

Cosmetics and jewelry such as cultured pearls also use the products of mariculture.

Algacultureis the type of aquaculture that cultivates seaweed. Most of the algae collected are microalgae (phytoplankton, microphytes or planktonic algae) or macroalgae, commonly known as seaweed.

Example of aquaculture: shellfish farming

Although macro-algae are used for various commercial purposes, its size and cultivation requirements make it difficult to grow. Microalgae are easier to grow on a large scale.

Plants in aquaculture

Aquaculture refers to the cultivation of aquatic organisms in a safe and controlled way. It uses several types of wastewater as a source of nutrients and/or warm temperatures for the growth of plants and fish. In the production of aquaculture plants, there are two main methods of cultivation:

  • Hydroponics: the place where plants are cultivated with roots directly exposed to water
  • Floating Plant Ponds: A floating plant pond is a modified maturation pond with floating plants (macrophytes). Plants such as hyacinths or duckweed float in them while the roots hang in the water to absorb nutrients and filter the flowing water.

Environment and aquaculture interactions

By increasing aquaculture, fish farming in particular, there is less need to fish the wild stock. As a result, it puts less stress on the ecosystem and also reduces human interference.

In addition, the actions of motorboats and other human influences such as the removal of viable spawning adult fish are stressing aquatic ecosystems. Their interruption allows the ecosystem to flourish and return to its natural balance.

What is fish farming

Definition of fish farming

Fish farming is one of the branches of aquaculture. It involves the commercial rearing of fish in tanks or pens such as fish ponds, usually for food.

This is the principal method of aquaculture, while other methods can be assimilated to mariculture. A structure that releases wild juvenile fish for sport fishing or to supplement the natural numbers of a species is generally referred to as a hatchery.

Fish farming professionals are grouped into unions or national representative bodies. Indeed, they carry out their activity within the framework of a respectful approach of the environment while focusing on a high quality production.

There are 33.8 million tons worth about US$60 billion according to the 2008 global fish farming revenues recorded by the FAO. This makes fish farming a sector with great economic potential.

Fish farming process

Method 1

The first method is through a system of cages placed in lakes, ponds and oceans containing the fish. This method is also commonly referred to as sea farming.

  • Fish are kept in cages as part of the structure and are “artificially fed” and harvested.
  • This cage method has made many technological advances over the years, especially with the reduction of disease and environmental concerns.
  • However, the main concern with this method is that the fish escape and become detached among the wild fish population.

Method 2

The second method is to use ditch or irrigation pond systems to raise fish. The basic requirement for this method is to have a ditch or pond that holds water.

This system is unique because :

  • On a small basis, the fish are fed artificially and the waste produced by the fish is then used to fertilize the farmers’ lands.
  • On a larger scale, especially in ponds, the pond is self-sufficient because it produces plants and algae to feed the fish.

Method 3

The third method of fish farming is composite fish farming. This is a type that allows local and imported fish species to coexist in the same pond. The number of species may depend, but it is possible to have more than six species of fish in a single pond. Fish species are always carefully selected to ensure coexistence and reduce competition for food.

Method 4

This method is considered to be the most common “pure” method of fish farming.

  • This approach uses large plastic tanks placed in a greenhouse.
  • There are hydroponic beds placed near the plastic tanks.
  • The water in the clay tanks is pumped to the hydroponic beds
  • This is where fish waste feed is used to provide nutrients to plants grown in hydroponic beds. The majority of the types of plants grown in hydroponic beds are herbs such as parsley and basil.

The last type of fish farming method is the “continuous flow system”. This is when farmed fish species are raised from eggs and then dumped into streams.

Fish Farming Project

Pond fish farming, with an earthen basin, in which the fish feed themselves completely or partially from the biological production of the environment.

Intensive fish farming in artificial ponds or cages, in which the fish are fed exclusively with food provided by the fish farmer.

Fish used for fish farming

For the fish farming technique, different types of freshwater and saltwater fish can be produced. Freshwater fish species are:

  • The Rainbow Trout is undoubtedly the most widespread. Rainbow trout is the most produced species with over 32,000 tons.
  • The Fario trout. Little tamed, it is essentially intended for the repopulation of rivers.
  • Brook Trout or Brook Salmon
  • Arctic Char
  • Sturgeon
  • Carp
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